A coeducational day school serving students JK-12

 

TRANSCRIPT
Join Upper School Computer Science Department Chair and Teacher Ash Hansberry, Middle School Computer Science Teacher Bobby Oommen and Lower School Computer Science and Technology Integration Specialist Fiona Deeney for a discussion about computational thinking and how it's woven into the curriculum at Latin.

Ash Hansberry: I’m Ash Hansberry and I am an upper school computer science teacher. I am also the Department Chair for the Computer Science Department. 

Bobby Oommen: I'm Bobby Oommen, middle school computer science teacher.

Fiona Deeney: I'm Fiona Deeney, the lower school computer science and technology integration specialist.

What is computational thinking?

Computational thinking is a set of skills, a set of thought processes, around organizing problems in a strategic organized way. Hansberry: Computational thinking is really just a set of skills, a set of thought processes around organizing problems, in a strategic organized way. So when we're thinking about computational thinking, we're thinking, how do I take the problem and break it down in such a way that a computer could understand it? So that means something like breaking a problem that is big into a bunch of little pieces, developing algorithms or instructions for how you would solve that problem. And then things like finding potential bugs or errors or ways that your solution might go wrong so that you can refine your solution and make sure that it is bug free and clear enough that any computer could understand it. 

How do skills in computational thinking allow students to solve complex problems? 

Oommen: So, as Ash mentioned, there are several components of computational thinking. One is problem decomposition. And so that's really just taking a problem and breaking it down into its smaller parts. Secondly, pattern recognition. So identifying patterns and then being able to forecast or predict what would happen next. And then the third one is then developing an algorithm. So what is the step-by-step way to solve this problem? So I think that those three things alone are huge in helping students to solve problems because oftentimes a kid will look at a problem and just say like, I don't know, like what do I do next? And so helping a kid say, well, what are the different parts of this problem? What do you see as like the discrete parts of this problem? And then helping them talk through like, well, I first see that I'm going to have to have this… I first see these like different sections... So if they can even start to parse out the different things, then it's not like this overwhelming, like a large problem to solve, but now it's like smaller components. I think that's really huge. And then when the kids start to identify patterns, they're able to make predictions like I think this is going to happen next or, well, I see these patterns applying to this section of the problem and this section of the problem, but not this section of the problem. And so again, what I've seen at least in the middle school is students getting overwhelmed by the size of a problem and not knowing where to start and computational thinking helps them to see that there are manageable pieces to this problem that you can now, um, attack. 

Hansberry: I would say that I've seen the same thing in the upper school as well. That one of the biggest benefits is this ability to know how to tackle a problem. I've said this to students before, if you can solve a problem in a way that computers can understand, you can be really confident that you know how to start the problem. You know, the steps in the middle, you know how to finish the problem, like this level of detail that goes into thinking like a computer can help students to really be able to take something that might overwhelm them and make it manageable.

How does computational thinking fit into every subject of study?

Deeney: To build on what Ash and Bobby just said, I think about the idea for a lower schooler of writing a story. You think about the specific components. It may feel like a large problem at the time when you're sort of thinking about that initial idea, but you have a deliberate sequence of how you put your story together and you have a goal in mind, as you write. In the editing process, you take out the pieces that no longer make sense, and you refine the story to get to your final product. So you're taking that big problem and you're breaking it down into smaller steps, taking out pieces that you no longer need. And thinking about the sequence as you put it together. 

Oommen: I would also say that, in the middle school, we often talk as teachers that we're all just helping kids solve problems and our problems look different in different subjects. But, computational thinking goes across the board. And, and so we talk often as middle school teachers, as far as integrating computational thinking is, are things that we've done as teachers, our whole lives, now we're just giving common wording so that when they go into another class or another class or another class, they're like, oh, this is the problem decomposition part, oh, this is the, this is the abstraction part. So there's at least a common terminology. And so kids don't feel like I'm doing something totally new in math versus language arts versus et cetera. 

Deeney: And just to build on that, Bobby as well, using words like decomposition and abstraction with even my JK students. So when they’re doing something, they break it down in just smaller parts or they're taking pieces out that no longer make sense–whatever they're doing–just having that exposure to that language, even when they're four or five years old, they hear that common language all throughout.

Hansberry: And I would say that that common language that Fiona was mentioning is like one of the strengths of having computational thinking built into our whole program–JK to 12–that's something I think is really valuable about our department. We can introduce these concepts in computer science in junior kindergarten, but then they see them in English in lower school and they see them in science and they see them again in middle school and they can keep revisiting these same terms and these same ideas, build these computational thinking skills, these computer science skills, really over their whole career with us here at Latin.   

Oommen: I will speak from the I perspective. When I was in school, I just felt like everything was just disjointed knowledge. I walk into one class and I've got to learn their thing and then another class and it's their thing. And it just all felt disjointed. And so as we integrate computational thinking to Ash’s points and Fiona's point, at least kids are able to see like, oh, it's the same skills I'm applying them in different ways. 

How do you build interest in thinking skills and integrate them into the curriculum? 

Hansberry: So I think this question is really answered by the fact that we don't teach computer science in a vacuum. We're never teaching computer science and computational thinking skills in one day in one lesson. There's no lesson we can point to that says today is the computational thinking lesson. It's really just woven into our curriculum and woven into the way that students solve problems. So when we're talking about a specific skill in class, maybe we're talking about debugging. Finding the errors in a program, we're looking at a specific program that does something, right? So we can take, maybe this is a program that's trying to calculate a problem they saw in math class, right? And we can look for the bugs in that program that they saw in math class. So it's really woven into the program. Whatever a student might be interested in. Maybe they really like math class. Maybe they really like art class. We can use these venues of where students are interested, as the problems we approach in class. You know, that is why I think in the upper school, and I know we do it in the middle and lower as well, we like to show students example programs that come from all these different disciplines. If we're practicing debugging skills, maybe one day we're debugging that math program, but maybe another day, it's a program that draws a picture and they can apply those same skills for a new program. But this time it connects more to the kids with an art interest or maybe they can use that same program to study animals, you know, and the kids who liked biology have a connection. So because the skills are so transferable, we really get to hook all the kids. We get an interested kid, no matter where they're coming from, no matter where their interests started, they can find a hook into computer science through all of our different parts. 

Oommen: I'll add onto that as well. I think all of us think our kids are inherently problem solvers and they're looking for good problems to solve. And if you can give them a problem  that is engaging, like they're willing to jump in, then we can start to talk about like, well, how would we solve this with a computer? So for example, one of the problems we start with in the middle school is you've invited 20 friends to a party. Here's the three tables. You've got to have them sit at the tables, but wait, these friends are in conflict and these people are friends. So how would you organize your tables? And then they come up with an algorithm and they come up with a reason why they would see people the way that they would be seated. Um, and then we start to break that down even further. And so we can say like, you're, you're solving problems all the time. Then these are relevant problems. Now, how do we get a computer to– because teachers use websites like randomseatingchart.org, a computer has solved that and just taken what you've just thought about and made it into an actual program. 

Podcast

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  • lower school
  • middle school
  • Podcast
  • upper school
Computer Science at Latin: Understanding Computational Thinking (Part 1)

 

TRANSCRIPT
Join Upper School Computer Science Department Chair and Teacher Ash Hansberry, Middle School Computer Science Teacher Bobby Oommen and Lower School Computer Science and Technology Integration Specialist Fiona Deeney for a discussion about computational thinking and how it's woven into the curriculum at Latin.

Ash Hansberry: I’m Ash Hansberry and I am an upper school computer science teacher. I am also the Department Chair for the Computer Science Department. 

Bobby Oommen: I'm Bobby Oommen, middle school computer science teacher.

Fiona Deeney: I'm Fiona Deeney, the lower school computer science and technology integration specialist.

What is computational thinking?

Computational thinking is a set of skills, a set of thought processes, around organizing problems in a strategic organized way. Hansberry: Computational thinking is really just a set of skills, a set of thought processes around organizing problems, in a strategic organized way. So when we're thinking about computational thinking, we're thinking, how do I take the problem and break it down in such a way that a computer could understand it? So that means something like breaking a problem that is big into a bunch of little pieces, developing algorithms or instructions for how you would solve that problem. And then things like finding potential bugs or errors or ways that your solution might go wrong so that you can refine your solution and make sure that it is bug free and clear enough that any computer could understand it. 

How do skills in computational thinking allow students to solve complex problems? 

Oommen: So, as Ash mentioned, there are several components of computational thinking. One is problem decomposition. And so that's really just taking a problem and breaking it down into its smaller parts. Secondly, pattern recognition. So identifying patterns and then being able to forecast or predict what would happen next. And then the third one is then developing an algorithm. So what is the step-by-step way to solve this problem? So I think that those three things alone are huge in helping students to solve problems because oftentimes a kid will look at a problem and just say like, I don't know, like what do I do next? And so helping a kid say, well, what are the different parts of this problem? What do you see as like the discrete parts of this problem? And then helping them talk through like, well, I first see that I'm going to have to have this… I first see these like different sections... So if they can even start to parse out the different things, then it's not like this overwhelming, like a large problem to solve, but now it's like smaller components. I think that's really huge. And then when the kids start to identify patterns, they're able to make predictions like I think this is going to happen next or, well, I see these patterns applying to this section of the problem and this section of the problem, but not this section of the problem. And so again, what I've seen at least in the middle school is students getting overwhelmed by the size of a problem and not knowing where to start and computational thinking helps them to see that there are manageable pieces to this problem that you can now, um, attack. 

Hansberry: I would say that I've seen the same thing in the upper school as well. That one of the biggest benefits is this ability to know how to tackle a problem. I've said this to students before, if you can solve a problem in a way that computers can understand, you can be really confident that you know how to start the problem. You know, the steps in the middle, you know how to finish the problem, like this level of detail that goes into thinking like a computer can help students to really be able to take something that might overwhelm them and make it manageable.

How does computational thinking fit into every subject of study?

Deeney: To build on what Ash and Bobby just said, I think about the idea for a lower schooler of writing a story. You think about the specific components. It may feel like a large problem at the time when you're sort of thinking about that initial idea, but you have a deliberate sequence of how you put your story together and you have a goal in mind, as you write. In the editing process, you take out the pieces that no longer make sense, and you refine the story to get to your final product. So you're taking that big problem and you're breaking it down into smaller steps, taking out pieces that you no longer need. And thinking about the sequence as you put it together. 

Oommen: I would also say that, in the middle school, we often talk as teachers that we're all just helping kids solve problems and our problems look different in different subjects. But, computational thinking goes across the board. And, and so we talk often as middle school teachers, as far as integrating computational thinking is, are things that we've done as teachers, our whole lives, now we're just giving common wording so that when they go into another class or another class or another class, they're like, oh, this is the problem decomposition part, oh, this is the, this is the abstraction part. So there's at least a common terminology. And so kids don't feel like I'm doing something totally new in math versus language arts versus et cetera. 

Deeney: And just to build on that, Bobby as well, using words like decomposition and abstraction with even my JK students. So when they’re doing something, they break it down in just smaller parts or they're taking pieces out that no longer make sense–whatever they're doing–just having that exposure to that language, even when they're four or five years old, they hear that common language all throughout.

Hansberry: And I would say that that common language that Fiona was mentioning is like one of the strengths of having computational thinking built into our whole program–JK to 12–that's something I think is really valuable about our department. We can introduce these concepts in computer science in junior kindergarten, but then they see them in English in lower school and they see them in science and they see them again in middle school and they can keep revisiting these same terms and these same ideas, build these computational thinking skills, these computer science skills, really over their whole career with us here at Latin.   

Oommen: I will speak from the I perspective. When I was in school, I just felt like everything was just disjointed knowledge. I walk into one class and I've got to learn their thing and then another class and it's their thing. And it just all felt disjointed. And so as we integrate computational thinking to Ash’s points and Fiona's point, at least kids are able to see like, oh, it's the same skills I'm applying them in different ways. 

How do you build interest in thinking skills and integrate them into the curriculum? 

Hansberry: So I think this question is really answered by the fact that we don't teach computer science in a vacuum. We're never teaching computer science and computational thinking skills in one day in one lesson. There's no lesson we can point to that says today is the computational thinking lesson. It's really just woven into our curriculum and woven into the way that students solve problems. So when we're talking about a specific skill in class, maybe we're talking about debugging. Finding the errors in a program, we're looking at a specific program that does something, right? So we can take, maybe this is a program that's trying to calculate a problem they saw in math class, right? And we can look for the bugs in that program that they saw in math class. So it's really woven into the program. Whatever a student might be interested in. Maybe they really like math class. Maybe they really like art class. We can use these venues of where students are interested, as the problems we approach in class. You know, that is why I think in the upper school, and I know we do it in the middle and lower as well, we like to show students example programs that come from all these different disciplines. If we're practicing debugging skills, maybe one day we're debugging that math program, but maybe another day, it's a program that draws a picture and they can apply those same skills for a new program. But this time it connects more to the kids with an art interest or maybe they can use that same program to study animals, you know, and the kids who liked biology have a connection. So because the skills are so transferable, we really get to hook all the kids. We get an interested kid, no matter where they're coming from, no matter where their interests started, they can find a hook into computer science through all of our different parts. 

Oommen: I'll add onto that as well. I think all of us think our kids are inherently problem solvers and they're looking for good problems to solve. And if you can give them a problem  that is engaging, like they're willing to jump in, then we can start to talk about like, well, how would we solve this with a computer? So for example, one of the problems we start with in the middle school is you've invited 20 friends to a party. Here's the three tables. You've got to have them sit at the tables, but wait, these friends are in conflict and these people are friends. So how would you organize your tables? And then they come up with an algorithm and they come up with a reason why they would see people the way that they would be seated. Um, and then we start to break that down even further. And so we can say like, you're, you're solving problems all the time. Then these are relevant problems. Now, how do we get a computer to– because teachers use websites like randomseatingchart.org, a computer has solved that and just taken what you've just thought about and made it into an actual program. 

Podcast

Explore Our News & Stories

hands up in the air at concert

Nora Cheng '21, one-third of Chicago's alternative/ indie rock band Horsegirl, is featured in a Rolling Stone article. Check out their song "Billy" and its accompanying music video, which the band described as “a love letter to past music scenes we wish we could have witnessed”.

Read the full Rolling Stone article and watch Horsegirl's music video "Billy" here.

Read The Forum's article on Horsegirl's emergence here.

 

 

  • Alumni
Third grade computer science students

Our youngest Romans in the lower school spend a significant amount of time on their digital devices, however, what’s important is how they spend that time and if they are being good digital citizens while online. 

Digital citizenship is integrated into daily learning throughout the school, from keeping passwords private to balancing screen time. Lower School Computer Science & Technology Integration Specialist Fiona Deeney, integrates digital citizenship into classroom discussions in computer science classes, with projects or activities in all grades. One example of a project is first grade students using Scratch Jr. to show what they know about keeping passwords private, asking adults before going online and balancing use of technology. The fourth graders create an infographic to display in the school to show their knowledge of what it means to be a positive digital citizen and positive digital footprints. (You can learn more about the project in this article from the 2020-21 school year.)

It’s also important for families to practice good digital citizenship skills, so we have included some helpful resources for families to learn more about managing a healthy online presence for themselves and their children. These may help facilitate conversations at home about digital citizenship and being safe online and align with conversations we have at school in all three divisions.

K-2 SEL in Digital Life-Family Conversations Starters Packet
Grades K-5 Family Tips: Help Kids Balance Their Media Lives 
Cyberbullying
Privacy and Internet Safety
Follow the Digital Trail: Our Digital Footprints 
International Society for Technology in Education Standards for Students 
SOURCES: Common Sense Media, ISTE

Academics

  • Academics
  • lower school
Fall 2021 Athletics Athletes

The upper school athletics teams were on fire this fall season! Check out their season highlights and accomplishments.

Boys Cross Country

Boys and Girls Cross Country
It was a historic season for the Romans Cross Country teams. Both the boys and the girls teams won Conference, Regionals and Sectionals. The girls team finished fourth at the State meet in Class 2A. The Boys team WON the State meet and are the Class 1A State champions! It was a fantastic season for the entire team. All-State honors was given to Ryan Hardiman '22 who set a new school record at 14:59. He's joined by Akili Parekh '23 and Ben Gibson '25 as All-State athletes. Ava Parekh '22 won the girls State meet, while also setting a new school record in 16:23. She's joined by Mia Kotler '25 as an All-State Athlete. All five were honored as All-Conference, All-Regionals and All-Sectional athletes.

GIrls Field Hockey

Varsity Field Hockey
The 2021 Latin Varsity Field Hockey team played one of their best seasons ever! This team demonstrated grit, determination, and passion while competing to finish the season with an overall record of 16-4. They are proud to have swept the ISL league with a record of 6-0. This accomplishment was the first time Latin Field Hockey had won the ISL in 20 years. They had nine clean sheets to the season, and a 14-game winning streak. Not only did this team exceed expectations on the field, but they were a joy to coach with their charisma, free-spirits, and genuine love for one another and this program. The team will greatly miss the 10 seniors next year. They are the trailblazers for what's to come for Latin Field Hockey. 

JV Blue Field Hockey
The 2021 JV Blue team had a record-breaking year. The record of 10-2-2 will go down into the history books, but what got them there is much more important than the numbers themselves. Behind these numbers are 20 individual stories. These are stories about what they learned about themselves and as a team. The things they sacrificed and the things they did both physically and psychologically that they never thought possible. The team made and solidified important and lasting friendships that will last a lifetime. Their stories brought them together to this point. It led them to realize that there is more joy in succeeding together than succeeding alone. 

JV Orange Field Hockey
The 2021 JV Orange squad made tremendous strides on and off the field. Their growth and competitiveness were reflected in our final record of 6-0-4. Each and every individual on the team contributed to our undefeated season. The team hammered down fundamentals, learned new skills and challenged ourselves to think tactically. The top goal scorers were Ulla Ciaccio '24, Maddie Gaines '24, and Alexa Valentine '24. With the potential of the girls on this team, this is surely only the beginning when it comes to their field hockey success! 

Boys Golf


Varsity Boys Golf
The 2021 Golf season afforded Latin to continue its recent strong program standing within the ISL and IHSA State series. The program was recognized by the ISL with this year’s Sportsmanship Award, identifying the program's consistent focus on respecting the game, ourselves, and our competitors. The team finished the season with a dual match record of 9-1 and finished in second place in the ISL standings to long-time foe, North Shore Country Day. The program tips our hat to the entire roster, with a special thank you to our seniors; they will be missed!  The coaches look forward to the continued growth and success of the Golf program into the future.

JV Boys Golf
JV Golf posted a strong 8-3 record for the 2021 season. The team's captains, Quinn Lovette '23, Ryan Rose '23 and Clark Patton '22, fostered lively camaraderie and a dedicated but relaxed team culture. The future bodes well for Latin golf, as Freshman Will Behan '25 and Karim Patterson '25 posted the team's lowest scores all season long, quickly cementing themselves atop the roster. Above all, JV Golf had a ton of fun this year - every minute spent with these guys was a pleasure. The coaches couldn't have asked for a better group.

Girls Golf Team

Varsity Girls Golf
The 2021 season was the strongest for the Latin Girls Golf program. The team played a very competitive schedule and finished the season with a record of 11-2. The girls won the ISL conference, IHSA regionals and the IHSA sectionals. At the IHSA state tournament, the team finished in eighth place overall after the two-day tournament.  All of the players made significant contributions to the team’s success. The team was led by seniors Emilia Rose '22, Giuliana Dowd '22 and Pickle Coleman '22 along with junior Lizzie Lucas '23, sophomores Maggie Zeiger '24, Ellery Axel '24 and Nisa Ahmed '24. The coaches look to continue to build upon the success of the golf program next season. 

Boys Soccer


Varsity Boys Soccer
Latin demonstrated a high level of class and resiliency during the 2021 season. For the third year in a row, Latin was recognized by the ISL with the sportsmanship award identifying our program’s focus on respecting and honoring the game. Latin finished 10-4-7 and advanced to the sectional finals. This year’s team was led by seniors Andrei Nikitovic '22, Ascher Cahn '22, Cesar Blas '22, David Cordon '22, Israel Martinez '22, Kai Lugo '22, Reed Rasmussen '22 (C), Sam Gibson '22 (C) and Shane Healy '22. While the team is losing nine seniors, the program has a strong foundation and nine starters returning. 

JV Boys Soccer
JV Boys Soccer was awesome! The boys honored the game by playing good, clean soccer. Every member of the team did their job and no one let their teammates down. The coaches would regularly receive praise from the opposition as well as from the referees! A referee came up to us after a match compelled to share that we were the best team he’s ever seen. And it wasn’t the final score or one individual's skill, but rather the entire team playing good soccer! Every match, they showed up with mad swag and walked away classier than ever. This group was the epitome of cool. It was tons of fun.

Girls Swimming


Girls Swimming
Led by captains Mia Wolniak '22, Lauren Valentin '22 and Reena Nuygen '22, the Girls Swim team had an amazing season. The team had a final meet record of 6-4, and placed second in the ISL. At Sectionals, the team placed eighth overall. Junior Elynor Starr '23 placed top 12 in her individual events (ninth in the 100 fly, 10th in the 500 free) and scored a lot of points for Latin. In addition, all three relays had season best times by a wide margin. The 200 medley relay finished eighth (Wolniak '22, Valentin '22, Starr '23, Weiskirch '25), the 200 free relay finished ninth (Mann '23, Hallinan '24, Cahill '23, Valentin '22), and the 400 free relay finished seventh (Starr '23, Hallinan '24, Wolniak '22, Weiskirch '25) overall.  

Girls Tennis


Varsity Girls Tennis
In 2020, Girls Tennis, unfortunately, did not have a State series despite winning ISL and Sectionals. However, they still came back in 2021, firing on all cylinders with the new additions of our two freshmen Marlo Leik '25 and Malia Chen '25. The team was led by seniors Phoebe Lembeck '22, Lucy Mitchell '22, and Junior Alice Mihas '23. Together they led the team to place second in State and ISL. Our State team consisted of our top two doubles teams, Alyssa Batcheler '22 and Lucy Mitchell '22, who had a triumphant win over U-High at the State final and won first place! Talia Truska '23 and Alice Mihas '23 fought their way to fourth place by beating Wauconda in a full third set in the quarterfinals. Overall, the team finished with a record of 13-2! 

JV Girls Tennis
The JV Girls Tennis team had an action-packed season with 12 matches, one weekend tournament and daily practices. Overall the team had a winning season finishing 8 and 4, with some of the losses almost too close to count. The coaches are so proud of the resilience, hustle and sportsmanship they saw on court day in and day out. Special congratulations to McKenzie Goltermann '25 the winning our Most Improved Player award. Alanna Madry '22, for winning the Sportsmanship award, and Lauren Pearsall '23 for winning the Most Valuable Player award. 

Girls Volleyball


Varsity Girls Volleyball
2021 was a difficult season for Girl Varsity Volleyball. After a challenging non-conference start to the season in the TC/Westmont and Niles West tournaments, the girls were able to pick up some momentum for the season. Lead by the seniors Tobi Morrow '22, Remy Rigby '22, and the setting of freshman standout Kate Malaisrie '25, the Romans were able to finish with a respectable 6-2 third place ISL finish and an overall 11-16 record. The team powered through our IHSA Regional competition and ended up falling in the Sectional semi-final to the eventual State championship team. While many individual players showed excellence during the season, three were recognized on the ISL All-Conference Team: Tobi Morrow '22, Remy Rigby '22, and Kate Malaisrie '25.

Freshman Girls Volleyball
As the fall 2021 Freshman Volleyball season has come to a close, the word to best describe it is new. New spaces, new faces, and new experiences. Though new, it was also a time filled with learning, laughing, and most importantly conditioning. The growth of these players in the past 10 weeks was very encouraging and should serve as a positive indicator of what’s to come over the next three years for this group. The season finished with a 5-6 record. However, the improvement that each player made cannot be deduced to a simple win-loss record on the stat sheet. The group showed up each day giving it their all, staying patient, and challenging themselves to be better athletes (and if they didn’t, well we ran). The team bought the mentality of “always believing that they can” and towards the end of the season fought hard with everything with that they had to win.

For a photo recap of the fall season, check out this video by Alyssa Batcheler '22, which was created for and presented at Fall Sports Banquet in November.

Athletics

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Lower school students in computer science class

Do you know how to think like a computer? In computer science classes, our lower school students learn to take a complex problem, break it down and focus on key ideas and information in order to solve the problem, just like a computer, but on a much smaller scale. 

At Latin, students gain computational thinking skills at a young age, which expand significantly through their time at the school. Computational thinking is a thought process around organizing problems in a strategic, organized way. In the lower school, students learn how to break down a big problem and then think through ways to solve that problem, building skills and a solid foundation for working through real-world challenges as they get older.

First grade computer science students explore how to build circuits with a tool called littleBits. Students are provided a power bit, an input, such as buttons, slide dimmers, proximity sensors and temperature sensors, as well as an output like buzzers, lights, motors and fans. They use computational thinking skills to create a circuit that makes the output work properly by understanding how energy flows through the necessary components all connected together.

Academics

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